Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a pathological process, which is a consequence of impaired motor function of the upper gastrointestinal tract. If the disease lasts a very long time, it is fraught with the development of the inflammatory process in the esophagus. This pathology is called eofaginitis.

Causes of development of the disease

Distinguish the following reasons for the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease:

  1.  Increase in intra-abdominal pressure. Its increase is associated with excess weight, the presence of ascites, flatulence, pregnancy.
  2.  Diaphragmatic hernia. All conditions for the development of the presented disease are created here. There is a decrease in pressure on the lower part of the esophagus in the sternum. Hernia of the esophageal opening of the diaphragm is diagnosed in old age in 50% of people
  3.  Decreased tone of the lower esophageal sphincter. This process is facilitated by the use of beverages, which contain caffeine (tea, coffee); Medicines (Verapamil, Papaverin); Toxic effect of nicotine on muscle tone, use of hot drinks that affect the mucosa of the esophagus; Pregnancy.
  4.  Eating food in a hurry and a lot. In such a situation, a large amount of air is ingested, and this is fraught with increased intragastric pressure.
  5.  Duodenal ulcer.
  6.  Eating large amounts of food containing animal fats, crossmint, fried foods, spicy seasonings, carbonated drinks. The entire list of products presented contributes to long-term gastric retention in the stomach and an increase in intragastric pressure.

How does the disease manifest itself?

The main symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux are as follows:

  • heartburn;
  • belching acid and gas
  • sore throat;
  • discomfort in the pit of the stomach
  • pressure that occurs after eating, which is increased after eating food, which contributes to the production of bile and acid. Therefore, it is worth giving up alcohol, fruit juices, carbonated water, radish.

Often the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease are manifested in the form of a belching of semi-digested food masses bile. In rare cases in patients with esophagitis, there are such symptoms:

  1.  vomiting or urging to it
  2.  abundant salivary discharge;
  3.  dysphagia;
  4.  feeling the pressure behind the sternum

Often, patients suffering from esophagitis, there are chest pains in the chest, neck, arm and back. If there are presented symptoms, then you need to go to the clinic for examination of the heart. The reason is that these manifestations can occur in people suffering from angina pectoris. Painful syndrome behind the sternum with reflux disease can trigger eating large amounts or sleeping on a very low cushion. Eliminate these symptoms with alkaline minerals and antacids.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease and its signs have a more pronounced character under the following conditions:

  • active physical activity
  • the slope of the upper body of the sails;
  • the use of sweets in large quantities
  • abuse of heavy food;
  • alcohol consumption
  • during a night’s rest.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease can provoke the formation of cardiac, dental, bronchopulmonary and otolaryngological syndromes. At night, the patient suffering from esophagitis experiences unpleasant symptoms from the following diseases:

  1.  chronic bronchitis
  2.  inflammation of the lungs
  3.  asthma
  4.  pain in the chest
  5.  heart rhythm disorder
  6.  development of pharyngitis and laryngitis

During the selection of chyme in the bronchi there is a possibility of bronchospasm. According to statistics, 80% of people suffering from bronchial asthma are diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux. Often, to alleviate the symptoms of asthmatics, it is only necessary to reduce the production of acid by the stomach. Approximately 25% of people get better after such activities.

An external examination of a patient suffering from esophagitis can not give detailed information about this ailment. Each person has his own symptoms: someone has mushroom papillae on the root of the tongue, and someone has an inadequate saliva production to supply the oral mucosa.

Classification of the disease

For today, experts have developed a certain classification of the disease. It does not presuppose the presence of a complication of reflux disease, which include ulcers, strictures, metaplasia. According to this classification gastroesophageal reflux is of 3 types:

  • Non-erosive form is the most common type of disease. This group includes reflux without manifestations of esophagitis.
  • The erosive-ulcerative form includes pathological processes complicated by ulcers and esophageal stricture
  • Barrett’s esophagus is a kind of disease that is diagnosed in 60% of cases. It is a metaplasia of multilayered flat epithelium, provoked by esophagitis. The presented form of the disease refers to precancerous diseases.

Diagnostics

Gastroesophageal reflux can be diagnosed using the following methods:

  1.  A test containing a proton pump inhibitor. Initially, the diagnosis can be made on the basis of the typical manifestations that the patient experiences. After this, the doctor will appoint an inhibitor of the proton pump. As a rule, use omeprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole, esomeprazole according to the standard dosage. The duration of such activities is 2 weeks, after which it is possible to diagnose the presented disease.
  2.  In-feed pH monitoring, the duration of which is a day. Thanks to this study, it is possible to understand the amount and duration of reflux within 24 hours, as well as the time during which the pH level falls below 4. A similar method of diagnosis is considered the main one in the confirmation of gastroesophageal reflux disease. It is possible to determine the relationship of typical, atypical manifestations with gastroesophageal reflux.
  3.  Fibroesophagogastroduodenoscopy. This diagnostic method for the detection of esophagitis helps identify cancer and precancerous diseases of the esophagus. The study is carried out when patients suffering from esophagitis, anxiety symptoms, with a prolonged course of the disease, and also when there is a controversial diagnosis are affected.
  4.  Chromoscopy of the esophagus. Such a study is advisable to carry out to people who have gastroesophageal reflux disease for a long time and is accompanied by constant relapses.
  5.  The ECG allows you to determine the arrhythmia and diseases of the cardiovascular system.
  6.  The ultrasound of the heart of the abdominal organs helps to detect diseases of the digestive organs and to exclude the pathology of the cardiovascular system.
  7.  X-ray of the esophagus, chest and stomach organs. Assign it to patients to detect pathological changes in the esophagus, hernia of the esophageal opening of the diaphragm.
  8.  A general blood test, a study of feces for latent blood, reveal baked samples.
  9.  Helicobacter pylori test. If his presence is confirmed, then radiation treatment is prescribed.

In addition to the diagnostic methods described, it is important to visit the following specialists:

  • cardiologist
  • pulmonologist
  • Otorhinolaryngologist
  • The surgeon, his consultation is necessary in case of ineffectiveness of the ongoing medical treatment, the presence of diaphragmatic hernias of large sizes, in the formation of complications.

Effective therapy

Treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease is based on the rapid elimination of manifestations of the disease and prevention of severe consequences.

Taking medication

Such therapy is allowed only after medication is prescribed by a specialist. If you are taking certain drugs prescribed by other doctors to eliminate absent ailments, then this can lead to a decrease in the tone of the esophageal sphincter. To such medicines carry:

  1.  nitrates;
  2.  calcium antagonists;
  3.  beta blockers;
  4.  theophylline;
  5.  oral contraceptives

There are cases when the presented group of medicines caused pathological changes in the mucous membrane of the stomach and esophagus.

Patients suffering from esophagitis are prescribed antisecretory drugs, which include:

  • proton pump inhibitors — pantoprazole, omeprazole, rabeprazole, esomeprazole
  • preparations blocking H2-histamine receptors — famotidine.

If there is a bile reflux, Ursofalk, Domperidone should be taken. The choice of a suitable medication, its dosage should be carried out strictly on an individual basis and under the constant supervision of a specialist.

It is allowed to use antacids for a short treatment of symptoms. Effectively apply Gaviscon forte in the amount of 2 teaspoons after a meal or Fosfalugel — 1-2 sachets after eating.

Treatment of gastroesophageal reflux in children involves the use of drugs, taking into account the severity of the manifestation of the disease and inflammatory changes in the esophagus. If there are no clearly expressed symptoms, then it is advisable to take only drugs aimed at normalizing the gastrointestinal motility. To date, effective drugs for admission to children are Metoclopramide and Domperidone. Their action is aimed at strengthening the motility of the antral stomach. Such measures have a rapid emptying of the stomach and increase the tone of the esophageal sphincter. If metoclopramide is taken in infants, extrapyramidal reactions occur. For this reason, medication should be taken with extreme caution. Do Domperidon have no side effects. The duration of such treatment is 10-14 days.

Diet

Diet in gastroesophageal reflux disease is one of the main directions of effective treatment. Patients suffering from esophagitis should follow the following recommendations in the diet:

  1.  Food intake is 4-6 times a day, in small portions, in a warm form. After a meal it is prohibited to immediately take a horizontal position, tilt the body and perform physical exercises.
  2.  Limit the use of foods and beverages that cause the activation of acid formation by the stomach and reduce the tone of the lower esophageal sphincter. These products include: alcoholic beverages, cabbage, peas, spicy and fried foods, black bread, legumes, carbonated drinks.
  3.  Eat as many vegetables, cereals, eggs and vegetable oils as vitamins A and E. They are aimed at improving the mucosa of the esophagus.

Surgical treatment

When the conservative treatment of the presented disease did not give the desired effect, severe complications arose, they perform surgical intervention. Surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease can be performed by the following methods:

  • Endoscopic plication of the gastroesophageal joint.
  • Radiofrequency ablation of the esophagus.
  • Lysaroscopic Nissen fundoplication and gastro cardiopexy

Traditional medicine

To eliminate the described disease, you can use folk remedies. The following effective recipes are distinguished:

  1.  Flaxseed broth. Such therapy with folk remedies is aimed at increasing the stability of the mucosa of the esophagus. Pour 2 large spoonfuls of ½ liter of boiling water. Infuse the drink for 8 hours, and take 0.5 cup of nitrogen 3 times daily before meals. The duration of such therapy by folk remedies is 5-6 weeks.
  2.  Milkshake. The use of a glass of cold milk is considered an effective folk remedy for the elimination of all manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Therapy with such folk remedies is aimed at eliminating acid in the mouth. Moloch has a calming effect on the throat and stomach.
  3.  Potatoes. Such folk remedies can also achieve a positive result. You just need to clear one small potato, cut it into small pieces and slowly chew it. A few minutes later, you will feel relieved.
  4.  Decoction from the root of the althaea. Therapy with folk remedies that include this drink will help not only to get rid of unpleasant manifestations, but also will have a calming effect. To make a medicine, you need to put 6 g of crushed roots and add a glass of warm water. Infuse the drink in a water bath for about half an hour. Treatment with folk remedies, including the use of the althea root, includes the ingestion of chilled broth over ½ cup 3 times a day.
  5.  In the treatment of folk remedies, the juice of celery roots is effective. Its reception should be conducted 3 times a day for 3 large spoons.

Alternative medicine involves a large number of recipes, the choice of a particular depends on the individual particular human body. But treatment with folk remedies can not act as a separate therapy, it is included in a general complex of medical measures.

Preventive measures

The main preventive measures of GERD include the following:

  • Eliminate the use of alcohol and tobacco.
  • Limit the intake of fried and spicy food.
  • Do not lift weights.
  • You can not stay long in an inclined pose.

In addition, prevention includes modern measures to detect violations of upper gastrointestinal motility and the therapy of hernia of the diaphragm.

In order to protect against the development of complications and relapses of the disease, to control the effectiveness of therapy, it is necessary to visit a specialist at least once every six months. It is especially advisable to conduct a survey in the autumn and spring period, since it is at this time that there is a high risk of pathology and relapse.