This procedure involves artificial interruption of pregnancy with the help of medical drugs without surgical interference. Medical interruption of pregnancy is performed is performed on the early stage (not later than 49 days) and is under the obligatory control of a medical specialist. Such type of abortion has been used unofficially for over hundred years and has become widespread in the last 25 years. Special formulae of the drugs have been developed which make the procedure 96% effective and are safe for health.
Types of abortions
- Therapeutic abortion. The procedure involves the removal of a fertilized egg (at the early stage up to 12 weeks) or an embryo (up to 22 weeks) from the uterus. Such abortion is performed only in a clinic otherwise, it is punishable by the law.
- Medical abortion at the early stages. This procedure is performed at the stage of pregnancy up to 7 weeks. Later, the effectiveness of the abortion is significantly reduced and is not reasonable to perform.
- Surgical abortion or scraping. This is the most traumatizing method of pregnancy interruption and is often complicated, but it has 100% effectiveness. Surgical abortion is allowed up to 22 weeks and only in cases of medical necessity. Surgical abortion in the later stages of pregnancy is punishable by law.
Indications and contraindications for medical abortion
Medical abortion does not have strict indications and is performed at the wish of a woman. However, a woman should have a number of examinations to exclude contraindications.
Indications for medical abortion:
- HIV (AIDS);
- Advanced or untreated syphilis;
- Mental disorders;
- Threat to life;
- A great risk of abnormal development and miscarriage.
Additionally to physical indications, social situations may occur in which the abortion is recommended:
- Young age (younger 16 years old);
- Absence of a husband;
- Family with many children;
- A disabled child in the family.
However, even in the presence of the aforementioned factors, there are contraindications to abortion:
- Acute infection;
- Inflammations of various origin;
- Ectopic pregnancy;
- Pathologies of the female reproductive system.
Medical abortion: how does it work?
Some disreputable clinics promise their trustful clients to make a medical abortion during a day after a visit. However, the duration of a medical abortion is two weeks on average. Several medical consultations and evaluation of procedure effectiveness are required.
Primary visit to a doctor
Before performing a medical abortion, a gynecologist performs an ultrasound examination of a woman to:
- confirm pregnancy;
- confirm that a fertilized egg is in the uterus;
- exclude contraindications;
- establish the stage of pregnancy.
It may happen that ultrasound examination will not detect pregnancy, in this case, a woman should take a sex hormone test which is detected only in pregnancy.
When the results of all the examinations are obtained, a gynecologist will inform a woman about the procedure, warns her against possible reactions and consequences. A girl should be aware that abortion may not occur after administration of the drugs to terminate an unwanted pregnancy. A pregnant woman should be ready for a common scraping.
When the woman gives her consent to the administration of the drugs for a medical abortion, the procedure itself.
The following groups of medications are used:
- Antiprogesterons (Mifepristone);
- Prostaglandines (Misoprostol);
- Hypertonic sodium chloride solution;
The combination of the first two substances is the most effective.
The drugs for a medical abortion are administered only in the presence of a doctor and in an individually prescribed dosages. At first, a woman takes Mifepriston which triggers intensive uterine contractions and leads to a fetal death. A doctor controls a reaction of a patient for some hours.
The second visit to a doctor
A woman should visit a doctor for the second time in two days. During this period, a fetus separates from the uterus. Under a medical control, a woman takes Misoprostol which provokes expulsion of a fetus from the body. A woman remains under a medical control for several hours as during this period of a medical abortion bleeding and discharge can occur.
A girl may also have some other complaints and a doctor should relieve them:
- Painful sensations. Pain does not necessarily occurs and it depends on a psychological state of a patient. To relieve pain, a woman can be given spasmolytic or analgesic, however it is better to avoid these substances as they reduce the effect of the main drug.
- Fever is one more consequence of a medical abortion. Fever is caused by the action of a drug and remains for several hours. It is easily relieved by paracetamol.
- Digestive disorders. Misoprostol can cause nausea, vomiting or diarrhea. Additional drugs are not required as the symptoms disappear themselves.
- Brown discharge after medical abortion is a norm and does not require any treatment. However, a woman should control the nature of discharge to early detect uterine bleeding.
The third visit to a doctor
A woman visits a doctor for the third time in a week after the administration of the drugs. Even her well-being is not a guaranty of successful results, so a woman undergoes an ultrasound examination to exclude complications and negative consequences of a medical abortion. The results of the ultrasound show if the abortion was complete or additional surgical measures are required.
If no problems are detected, a woman can go home but a medical specialist should inform her about the methods of contraception. After a medical abortion, a woman can get pregnant after her first period. She should avoid sex for some time after the procedure. It is allowed to have sex after a medical abortion in two weeks, when a woman visits a doctor for the third time.
Complications of medical abortion
Two major life-threatening complications of such termination are distinguished:
- Incomplete abortion. It occurs when, for some reasons, a fertilized egg is not expelled and the pregnancy continues to develop. In this situation, scraping is required.
- Bleeding after medical abortion. Discharge after the procedure is considered to be a physiological phenomenon, but women with vessel or blood diseases may have uterine bleeding. This is a life-threatening condition and requires immediate medical assistance. The blood loss may be acute or chronic (leads to anemia).
Advantages of the drugs provoking abortion
- Almost 100% effectiveness;
- Safe for a woman, if properly performed;
- Abortion is possible from the first days of pregnancy;
- Absence of surgical traumas and complications;
- No risk of complete or relative infertility;
- No depression (even the most sensitive girls undergo the procedure very well);
- No pathologies of the female reproductive system.
It is a very rare case when the consequence of a medical abortion is a criminal responsibility on the part of a medical staff or a woman.
Each clinic offering such services, must have all the necessary certifications authorizing abortions. The doctors must use only certified medications.
It is not allowed to make a medical abortion oneself on the early stages as there is a great risk of incomplete abortion. Abortion on the late stages is punishable by the law. Up to 12 weeks, termination is performed at the wish of a woman or by medical indications. At the stage of 12-22 weeks, abortion is performed strictly for women with absolute medical indications.