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Organ systems

An organ system is a set of all organs that have a common function and perform a specific task in the body.

Cardiovascular system

The cardiovascular system is a system of organs in the human body that provides a fast way of transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones, numerous neurohumoral substances, as well as substances that will be excreted from the body through the kidneys. The main role is the exchange of matter in the organism, both between the cells of one system and several organ systems, which can be distant from each other, and between the cells and the external environment.

The cardiovascular system consists of: the heart, whose task is to pump blood and the vascular network of blood vessels, which consists of arterial, venous and lymphatic components.

Digestive system

The digestive system is a system of digestive organs and has the task of entering food into the human body, to process the food obtained by the action of its juices in order to make it usable for the body, and to expel undigested parts out of the body. In this way, the mentioned system deals with settling the organism as a whole.

The digestive system consists of a large number of organs that are interconnected. It can be represented as one long unbroken pipe whose individual parts continue into each other.

It begins with the food inlet (oral cavity) in which the tongue and teeth are located, followed by the pharynx and esophagus. The esophagus continues into the stomach, the stomach into the small intestine, while the latter continues into the large intestine which again terminates in an opening. To this system are added the liver with the gallbladder, and the pancreas, which secretes its juices into the digestive tract.

Endocrine system

The endocrine system consists of a group of organs (sometimes referred to as endocrine glands) whose main function is the production and secretion of hormones directly into the bloodstream. Hormones serve as messengers to coordinate the activities of different parts of the body.

Hormones secreted from the endocrine glands (endocrine glands) are transmitted directly through the blood or lymph to the target tissues. Once the hormone is recognized by the tissue a biological action occurs. The action of some hormones may begin immediately within a few seconds (epinephrine, glucagon), and the action of others may begin after a few hours or days (growth hormone, aldosterone).

The most important organs of the endocrine system are the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, islets of the pancreas, adrenal glands, testes and ovaries (ovaries). During pregnancy as an endocrine gland, it acts in addition to its other functions and the placenta.

Hemic system

Integumentary system

The integumentary system is a system of organs that covers the whole body from the outside and protects it from various external influences (microorganisms, dehydration, physically protects internal organs), serves to excrete matter outside the body and contains sensory bodies for pain, pressure and temperature.

The largest part of this system is the largest organ of the body, the skin. Inside the skin are other various organs of this system such as glands (sweat glands, sebaceous glands, mammary glands), sensory bodies and nerve endings, various skin derivatives (hair, nails, and shell and hair – in some species) and blood vessels .

The integumentary system is also important because it enables the maintenance of homeostasis of the body regardless of external conditions.

Lymphatic system

The lymphatic system is part of the immune system of the human body. Its roles are: collection and delivery of excess intercellular fluid into the blood, absorption of fats from the intestines and their transfer into the blood, the formation of lymphocytes and the body’s defense against disease.

It consists of the lymph, lymph vessels (lymph flow) and lymphatic organs which include the bone marrow, thymus, spleen, tonsils and lymph nodes. The lymphatic system also includes accumulations of lymph tissue located in the mucous membranes of the digestive and respiratory systems.

Lymph is a clear fluid found in lymphatic vessels. It has more than blood, and its tasks are to help maintain osmotic pressure, it is an essential part of immunity, it transmits hormones and lipids, and it transports waste products from tissues.

Musculoskeletal system

Musculoskeletal is a general term which, as its name implies, refers to the muscles and skeleton of the body. More precisely, the musculoskeletal system includes bones, muscles, joints, cartilage, ligaments, tendons and bursae. The main function of the musculoskeletal system is to support the body, movement and protection of vital organs.

Nervous system

The nervous system is a network of specialized cells that send, transmit and receive information. By processing this information, the nervous system stimulates reactions in other parts of the body. It is made up of two types of cells: neurons (the functional basis of the nervous system) and glial cells (they help the function of neurons).

The nervous system consists of the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system, which is made up of the nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord to all parts of the body.

Reproductive system

The reproductive system is a system of organs that serves organisms for the purpose of reproduction. Organs that belong to the reproductive system are often called sexual organs. Unlike other organ systems, the organs of the reproductive system differ significantly between different sexes of the same species.

The human reproductive system includes the external genitalia and internal genitals. The structure of the sexual system consists of gonads, various ducts and openings.

The external structure of the male reproductive system includes the penis, scrotum and testis. The internal structure includes the vas deferens, urethra, prostate and seminal vesicles.

The external structure of the female reproductive system includes the labia majora, labia minora, bartholin’s glands, mons pubis, and clitoris. The internal structure includes the vagina, uterus, ovary, fallopian tubes. The ovaries and fallopian tubes are the paired organs located in the pelvis.

Respiratory system

The respiratory system has its basic task of bringing external (atmospheric) air into the lungs. In the lungs, more specifically in the alveoli, there is an exchange of gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide, between the inhaled air and the blood called external respiration.

The respiratory system begins through the nose and mouth and continues through the airways to the lungs, where oxygen from the air is exchanged with carbon dioxide from body tissues. The lungs, most of the respiratory system, resemble large pink sponges that almost fill the chest. The left lung is slightly smaller than the right because it shares space with the heart on the left side of the chest. Each lung is divided into sections (lobes): three in the right and two in the left lung.

Air enters the respiratory system through the nose and mouth and passes through the pharynx and larynx. The entrance to the larynx is covered by a small flap of muscle tissue (epiglottis) that closes when swallowed, thus preventing food from entering the airways.

Urinary system

The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra.

In the body of all living beings, including man, various substances necessary for its construction or serve as a source of energy are constantly introduced. During the change of these substances, ie in the processes of metabolism, harmful products are created in the body, which must be separated and expelled from the body as soon as possible.

These organs participate in the regulation of the volume and composition of body fluids. By means of the urinary system, all harmful substances (end products of metabolism, toxins, etc.), as well as excess water and electrolytes, are eliminated from the blood plasma, and urine is formed.

The largest amount of harmful substances is excreted through the kidneys. Cessation of kidney function would lead to deadly blood poisoning.